Thursday, December 12, 2013

Shackleton Expedition Reference

Antarctica Fact File

Quick Antarctic Statistics
1.4 x bigger than the USA
58 x bigger than the UK
1.8 x bigger than Australia
13,829,430 km25,339,543 miles2
Ice-free area
(0.32% of total)
44,890 km217,330 miles2
Largest Ice ShelvesRoss ice shelf:(about the size of France)
 Ronne-Filchner ice shelf:(about the size of Spain)
439,920 km2
169,850 miles2
MountainsTransantarctic Mountain chain:
3,300 km
2,050 miles
 Highest 3 mountains:
Mt. Vinson - 4,892 m / 16,050 ft
(sometimes called "Vinson Massif")
Mt. Tyree - 4,852 m / 15,918 ft
Mt. Shinn - 4,661 m / 15,292 ft
IceAntarctica has 70% of all the world's freshwater frozen as ice - and 90% of all the world's ice.

1,829 m / 6,000 ft
Mean thickness East Antarctica:
2,226 m / 7,300 ft
Mean thickness West Antarctica:
1,306 m / 4,285 ft
Maximum ice thickness:
4,776 m / 15,670ft

Lowest point - Bentley subglacial trench,depth below sea-level
2,496 m / 8,188 ft
M km3 - Million cubic kilometresVolume
25.4 M km3 / 6.09 M miles3
Grounded ice sheets
24.7 M km3 / 5.93 M miles3
Ice shelves:
0.7 M km3 / 0.17 M miles3
Peninsula ice:
0.1 M km3 / 0.024 M miles3
PopulationAbout 4,000 on scientific bases in the short summer 1,000 total in winter, around 30,000-40,000 summer tourists - and this place is 1.4 x bigger than the USA! There are NO permanent residents and NEVER has been a native population.
Discovery and ExplorationAntarctica was imagined by the ancient Greeks, but not even seen until 1820.The first time anyone set foot on Antarctica was in 1821.
The first year-round occupation -overwintering - was in 1898.
The South Pole was first reached in 1911.
Climate3 factors rule in Antarctica - cold, wind and altitude. Antarctica holds the world record for each of these three things.The temperature falls as you leave the coast as the continent slopes upwards and temperature falls as you go higher.
Lowest recoded on earth - Vostok station -89.2°C / -128.6
Average summer temperature at South Pole -27.5°C / -17.5°F
Average winter temperature at South Pole -60°C / -76°F

Wind:Mawson station in Antarctica is the windiest place on earth.
Average wind speed:
37 kmh / 23 mph
Maximum recorded gust:
248.4 kmh / 154 mph
LandformsAntarctica has many landforms - it's a continent! But for the benefit of your geography teacher, here's a few main ones:
coral reef #desert
# - this is a lie
Antarctica Environment
Climate data and graphs
Antarctica Politics
Antarctica Science
Antarctica History
Adelie penguin Pygoscelis adeliaeChinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarcticaGentoo penguin Pygoscelis papuaEmperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteriKing penguins Aptenodytes patagonica
Weddell seals  Leptonychotes weddelliSouthern Fur seal  Arctocephalus gazellaSouthern Elephant seal  Mirounga leoninaCrabeater seal  Lobodon carcinophagusLeopard Seal  Hydruga leptonyx
Marine Life
Whale species - species and lifestyle
Whaling -1  - historical perspective
Whaling -2 - why were whales caught?
Whaling in the 21st century
Whaling pictures
Whales and food webs
Krill - 
Euphausia superba
Other birds
Snow petrel   Pagrodama niveaBlue eyed shag   Phalacrocopax atricepsGiant petrel   Macronectes giganteusWandering albatross   Diomedea axulansAntarctic skua   Catharacta maccormickiCape pigeon   Sheathbill
Antarctic tern   Sterna vittata